1 Samuel Intro
1 Samuel Intro
The two Books of Samuel were originally one volume along with 1 & 2 Kings in the Hebrew Scriptures. 1 and 2 Samuel were joined with the Book of Kings, and the total work was called “The Books of the Kingdoms. When it was translated into Greek (the Septuagint) in order to help in study it was divided at that time into the four divisions now found in our Bibles. The books were named for Samuel because he is the prominent character in the books. Samuel was a prophet and a priest, and charged with the responsibility of anointing Israel’s first two kings.
We do not know who the author of 1 Samuel is. Jewish tradition claims that the prophet Samuel wrote the Books of Judges and Samuel, while the prophets Gad and Nathan supplied supplementary information concerning the years following Samuel’s death (1 Samuel 25:1).
But there is no reference to an author in the book. The biblical text does indicate that Samuel made some written records (10:25) and that prophetic figures (Samuel, Nathan, and Gad) chronicled many of the acts of King David (1 Chronicles 29:29).
We believe the book was written between 1120-1010 B.C. 1 Samuel deals with the period of time between the birth of Samuel and the closing days of Saul’s reign. It begins prior to the Kingdom of Saul when Israel was in the time of Judges, a time described with the expression “every man did what was right in his own eyes” (Judges 17:6).
The book ends with the death of King Saul, who falls on his own sword in the heat of battle with the Philistines. If the birth of Samuel (Samuel 1:20) is dated 1120 B.C., and if David ascended the throne of Judah 1010 B.C., then the book covers more than a century of Israel’s history.
1 Samuel chronicles the start of Israel’s Monarchy: The growing desire for a king, and the rejection of God as Israel’s King (1 Samuel 8:5-7). Kingship is seen as a theological issue rather than a political one. The God of Israel continues to be the true King of Israel even in the age of Judges Gideon understood this (Judges 8:22-23). The earthly king would represent the nation before God and would be ultimately responsible to Him.
In fact the book clearly shows that the success or failure of the anointed king would be based on his obedience or disobedience to the Law (God’s Word) and his commitment to the will of God. For God, the king was to be a Spirit-led national leader who adhered to the Law of God and recognized the Lord as the true King of the nation.
It was this concept of kingship that God ordained and in fact modeled in Yeshua. The popular idea of kingship had been influenced by Canaanite thinking. The people were asking for a despotic ruler who was answerable to no one. This was a king “like all the nations” (1 Samuel 8:5, 20), one that was objectionable to both God and Samuel (1 Samuel 8:10-20).
I. The Preparations for the Monarchy (1 Samuel 1:1-9:27).
A. Samuel’s Birth and Childhood (1 Samuel 1:1-28).
1. Samuel’s Family (1 Samuel 1:1-3).
2. Hannah’s Problem (1 Samuel 1:4-8).
3. Hannah’s Prayer (1 Samuel 1:9-18).
4. Samuel’s Birth (1 Samuel 1:19-23).
5. Samuel’s Presentation to God (1 Samuel 1:24-28).
B. Hannah’s Song (1 Samuel 2:1-10).
1. Hannah’s Exulting in the Lord (1 Samuel 2:1).
2. Hannah’s Extolling of the Lord (1 Samuel 2:2-8).
3. Hannah’s Expectation from the Lord (1 Samuel 2:9,10).
C. The Situation at Shiloh (1 Samuel 2:11-36).
1. Samuel’s Progress (1 Samuel 2:11, 26).
2. The Sins of the Priesthood (1 Samuel 2:12-17,22-25).
3. The Blessing of Samuel’s Family (1 Samuel 2:18-21).
4. The Rejection of the Priesthood (1 Samuel 2:27-36).
E. The Ark (1 Samuel 4:1-7:17).
1. The Capture of the Ark (1 Samuel 4:1-22).
2. The Power of the Ark (1 Samuel 5:1-12).
3. The Return of the Ark (1 Samuel 6:1-7:1).
4. The Restoration of the Ark (1 Samuel 7:2-17).
F. Selection of a King (1 Samuel 8:1-9:27).
1. The Demand for a King (1 Samuel 8:1-9).
2. The Nature of the King (1 Samuel 8:10-18).
3. The Introduction of the King (1 Samuel 8:19-9:14).
4. The Choice of the King (1 Samuel 9:15-27).
II. The Period of Saul (1 Samuel 10:1-31:13).
A. Saul’s Ascendancy (1 Samuel 10:1-14:52).
1. Saul’s Choice by Israel (1 Samuel 10:1-27).
2. Saul’s First Victory (1 Samuel 11:1-15).
3. The Address by Samuel (1 Samuel 12:1-25).
4. Saul’s First Rebuke (1 Samuel 13:1-23).
5. Jonathan’s Peril (1 Samuel 14:1-52).
B. Saul’s Rejection (1 Samuel 15:1-35).
D. Saul’s Death (1 Samuel 27:1-31:13).
1. David at Ziklag (1 Samuel 27:1-12).
2. Saul at En Dor (1 Samuel 28:1-25).
3. David’s Return to Ziklag (1 Samuel 29:1-30:31).
4. The Battle of Gilboa (1 Samuel 31:1-13).